In 1998, we conducted the first national survey of urology residents to evaluate Canadian training programs and other aspects related to the future practice of urology. The survey, a 7-page questionnaire, examined the educational learning needs of the trainees. Of 70 residents surveyed, 41 responded (response rate 60%). Topic areas in which the respondents felt comfortable included uro-oncology, and surgery of the prostate, kidney, and bladder. They were less comfortable with management of incontinence and infertility. In-training evaluation was thought to be an important activity that was well done by the training programs. A large majority (81%) expressed interest in elective rotations which they indicated should last 3 to 4 months. They suggested that research rotations be available, but not mandatory. There was strong support for the concept of a national examination preparation course. Almost half of the respondents indicated that American board examinations in urology were important in that it allowed them a choice between Canada and the United States. These results will be of use to those involved in the training of Canada's future urologists.