The past decade has profoundly changed how physicians manage patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The concepts of symptom indices, symptom complexes, flow rates, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate size and new medical approaches supported by new clinical studies, have provided family practitioners as well as specialists with evidence-based management algorithms to treat BPH. Men with BPH most often visit a physician due to their partner's urging because of the many symptoms, with the most bothersome being nocturia. Today, primary care physicians are the gatekeepers for diagnosing and managing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. They need to be aware of long term negative consequences if these major symptoms are not treated early.