Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the commonest causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men over age 50. Fifty percent of men over age 50 will require some type of management for BPH/LUTS symptoms. Until about 15 years ago, the most common management for BPH was a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) operation. Initially, once a diagnosis of BPH has been made, most men are treated medically. One must first rule out other serious causes of these symptoms, such as prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and other obstructions. For men with an enlarged prostate, there is a good chance that therapy with a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) can prevent disease progression and the need for surgery. There has been a lot of recent work on different combination therapies for the treatment of BPH/LUTS. If a patient's serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is greater than 1.5 ng/ml and his prostate volume is greater than 30 cc and he has significant LUTS, then combination medical therapy of an alpha blocker with a 5-ARI is the most effective therapy. After a careful workup, it is quite reasonable and appropriate for the primary care physician to initiate this therapy for a patient with BPH/LUTS.