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Less is more: single dose versus extended antibiotic prophylaxis for transperineal prostate biopsy
Department of Urology, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA
Aug  2023 (Vol.  30, Issue  4, Pages( 11599 - 11604)
PMID: 37633286


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  • Introduction:

    There is an ongoing debate as to the appropriate regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis with transperineal (TP) biopsy. The objective of this study was to report the rate of infection following TP biopsy at a high-volume institution and assess the impact of single dose antibiotics at the time of biopsy versus outpatient antibiotics in preventing postprocedural infections.

    Materials and methods:

    Records of men undergoing TP prostate biopsy from 2012 to 2022 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups, those who received single dose intravenous (IV) antibiotics at the time of biopsy (n = 440) and those who received both IV antibiotics at the time of biopsy and outpatient antibiotics before/after biopsy (n = 327). Post biopsy infection was defined as at least one of the following: fever (≥ 38.3°C) with/without symptoms of urinary tract infection or positive urine culture (> 105 colony forming units) within 72 hours post biopsy. The rates of infection were compared between the two groups.


    A total of 767 biopsies were included in the study. Infection rate post TP biopsy was 1.83% (n = 14). The infection rate for patients with single dose prophylaxis was 2.05% (n = 9) and 1.53% (n = 5) for those that received the extended antibiotic regimen. No significant difference in infection rates between the different antibiotic regimens was found (p = 0.597).


    Overall rates of infection after TP prostate biopsy are very low. Our data indicate that single dose and extended regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis show similar infection rates. These findings support antibiotic stewardship and encourage further research into the appropriate regimen of prophylaxis for TP prostate biopsy.