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Bladder spasms following ambulatory urologic procedures
Departments of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Jun  2022 (Vol.  29, Issue  3, Pages( 11175 - 11181)
PMID: 35691040


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  • Introduction:

    Bladder spasm are common complications following cystoscopic urologic procedures. This study aims to determine the incidence and risk factors for bladder spasm after ambulatory cystoscopic urologic procedures.

    Materials and methods:

    Medical records of adult patients who underwent urologic procedures in our ambulatory center from May 1st, 2018 through December 30th, 2020, were reviewed. Bladder spasm was identified from the administration of antispasmodic therapy (e.g. oxybutynin) during anesthesia recovery. Multivariable analyses were performed to assess the association between bladder spasm and clinical factors.


    Included were 2,671 patients, of which 917 (34.3%) developed postoperative bladder spasm, yielding an incidence of 343 (95%CI 325-361) per 1,000 procedures. Risk factors associated with bladder spasm were younger adult age (< 60 years), longer (> 45 minutes) and more complex procedures. Compared to cystoscopy the risk of spasm following transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was OR 4.35 (95%CI 3.22, 5.87) and for transurethral resection of the prostate OR 3.25 (95% CI 2.24, 4.71). Spasm prophylaxis with belladonna and opium suppositories (B&O) was used in 1,158 patients and 384 (33.2%) developed spasms. The use of B&O was not associated with reduction of bladder spasm, OR 0.91 (95%CI 0.75, 1.1, p = 0.318). Postoperative outcomes did not differ between patients who did or did not develop spasms.


    Bladder spasms are common following ambulatory urologic procedures, more so with more extensive procedures. Prophylaxis with B&O was not significantly associated with a lower rate of bladder spasms.