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Risk factors for postoperative Clostridium difficile infection after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a NSQIP database analysis
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA // University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Urology Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Jun  2022 (Vol.  29, Issue  3, Pages( 11170 - 11174)
PMID: 35691039


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  • Introduction:

    Patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer are at an increased risk for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to prolonged antibiotics and underlying comorbidities. We aim to evaluate CDI risk factors in cystectomy patients.

    Materials and methods:

    Utilizing National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), patients undergoing cystectomy with diagnosis of bladder cancer between 2015-2017 were included. Baseline demographics including age, sex, comorbidities, and preoperative labs were collected. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate risk factors for and complications of CDI during the index hospitalization.


    There were a total of 6,432 patients included in the analysis, with 6,242 (96%) and 190 (4%) in the non-CDI vs. CDI groups, respectively. Patients with a diagnosis of postoperative CDI were more likely to be female [4.09% vs. 2.71%, p = 0.001] and have lower preoperative albumin [3.78 g/dL (0.52) vs. 3.92 g/dL (0.48), p = 0.003]. Patients with a history of female sex (OR 1.46, p = 0.03), neobladder (OR 1.57, p = 0.01), and low preoperative albumin (OR 1.45, p = 0.04) were at the highest risk for development of CDI postoperatively. Patients with a diagnosis of CDI were more likely to experience readmission within 30 days (31.1% vs. 19.2%, p < 0.001).


    Utilizing the NSQIP database, we identified predictors for development of CDI in cystectomy patients. Female sex, continent diversion, and low preoperative albumin all significantly increased the rate of CDI. While our findings are retrospective, they are compelling enough to warrant further prospective investigation.