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Urinary leak following partial nephrectomy: a contemporary review of 975 cases
Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA
Feb  2020 (Vol.  27, Issue  1, Pages( 10118 - 10124)
PMID: 32065869


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    To describe the incidence, contemporary management, risk factors and outcomes of urinary leak following open and robotic partial nephrectomy at a tertiary care, comprehensive cancer center.


    We reviewed 975 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy at Moffitt Cancer Center from January 2009 to May 2017. Patient demographic, perioperative and follow up data was recorded and compared stratified for postoperative urine leak. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon sum-rank testing were performed for categorical and continuous variables as indicated.


    Twenty-three of 975 (2.3%) patients experienced a urine leak after partial nephrectomy. Median nephrometry score for urine leak patients was 8 (SD +/- 1.3). Median postoperative days to detection was 3.5 and most leaks were discovered due to high drain output. Operative factors associated with urinary leak included open surgery, estimated blood loss, and not using a sliding-clip renorrhaphy (p < 0.05). Ten (44%) were managed conservatively, 9 (39%) patients required ureteral stent placement, 3 (13%) needed a percutaneous nephrostomy tube, one patient (4%) required percutaneous drainage for urinoma (4%). One patient ultimately failed conservative management and required nephrectomy 45 days after the original surgery. Mean time to stent and drain removal was 40 +/- 17 and 24 +/- 7 days, respectively. Five patients with symptomatic leaks were readmitted with a mean length of stay of 3.2 +/- 1.8 days.


    The overall incidence of urinary leak after partial nephrectomy remains low regardless of surgical approach. Perioperative characteristics such as tumor complexity and high blood loss, in addition to open surgery and not using a sliding-clip bolstered renorrhaphy are associated with urine leak.