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Extended hospital stay after radical cystectomy with enhanced recovery protocol
The Institute of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Feb  2019 (Vol.  26, Issue  1, Pages( 9654 - 9659)
PMID: 30797248


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    To evaluate the reasons leading to an extended hospital stay (EHS) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with postoperative enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol.


    A total of 509 patients underwent RC and urinary diversion with ERAS between May 2012 and March 2017. The protocol includes no bowel preparation, early feeding, predominantly non-narcotic pain control and µ opioid antagonists. Non-consenting/lost to follow up patients, and those with non-urothelial carcinoma were excluded. We defined EHS as ≥ 5 postoperative days and compared the cohort to those with a LOS of ≤ 4 days. Demographics including modifiable and non-modifiable factors as well as in-house complications as possible contributing factors to EHS was reviewed.


    There were 279/509 (54.8%) patients had an EHS. Median age was 73 years, 82.4% were male, and 36.6% had a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of > 2. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age > 65 years, CCI > 2, increased operative time, anemia requiring transfusion and non-orthotopic diversion were associated with EHS. On multivariate analysis, advanced age, operative time, postop transfusion, CCI > 2 as well as surgeon specific preferences was associated with EHS. Within EHS patients, 86% stayed due to an in-house complication; ileus (34.3%), anemia requiring transfusion (9.8%), UTIs (9.4%) and atrial fibrillation (8.5%).


    Advanced age, operative time, postop transfusion, CCI > 2 and surgeon-specific preferences are associated with an EHS following RC with ERAS. The common causes of EHS are in-house complications, mainly ileus.