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Is RIRS emerging as the preferred option for the management of 2 cm-4 cm renal stones: our experience
Department of Urology, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman
Aug  2016 (Vol.  23, Issue  4, Pages( 8364 - 8367)
PMID: 27544560


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    The European Association of Urology (EAU) and the American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as the first-line treatment of renal stones greater than 20 mm, however multistage retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) is reported to have high stone-free rates (SFR), fewer complications and a rapid learning curve. This study presents our experience of RIRS in the management of 2 cm-4 cm renal stones.


    A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent RIRS for 2 cm-4 cm renal stones over a period of 22 months. The demographics of 71 patients as well as the stone and procedural demographics were recorded. Pre and postoperative radiological assessment was performed by NCCT scanning in 83% of the patients and ureteral access sheaths were used in only 12% of the patients. The severity of surgical complications was determined according to the Clavien-Dindo system.


    RIRS was performed on 71 patients for renal stones with a mean size of 26 mm. The mean number of procedures per patient was 2.1 and the overall SFR was 81%. Few complications were encountered and only 1 patient had III-b Clavien complication.


    The study further supports RIRS as a safe and efficacious treatment option for renal stones of 2 cm-4 cm in size. Although both the EAU and AUA do not currently recommend RIRS as the first-line treatment of such stones, it appears to be emerging as a commonly utilized primary modality.