Welcome to the CJU website » LOG IN


Is retrograde intrarenal surgery for the treatment of renal stones with diameters exceeding 2 cm still a hazard?
IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy
Apr  2014 (Vol.  21, Issue  2, Pages( 7207 - 7212)
PMID: 24775573


Text-Size + 


    Major kidney stones have traditionally been treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), which until a few years ago was considered inappropriate for this purpose, is becoming a viable, attractive alternative. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy and safety of RIRS combined with holmium laser lithotripsy for the treatment of stones > 2 cm in diameter in a large series of patients, reporting complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification.


    By retrospective analysis, we identified a total of 162 patients who were affected by stones greater than 2 cm in diameter and who had undergone RIRS. We reviewed demographic and stone characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative outcomes, and complications.


    The mean stone size was 2.7 cm +/- 0.6 cm. The primary, secondary, and tertiary stone-free rates were 66%, 80.9%, and 87.7%, respectively. The mean number of procedures per patient was 1.48. The complication rates according to the Clavien-Dindo classification were Clavien I in 20.4% of patients, Clavien II in 0%, Clavien III in 4.9%, Clavien IV in 0.6%, and Clavien V in 0%.


    As an alternative to standard procedures for the treatment of renal calculi greater than 2 cm in diameter, RIRS is safe and effective, with a low complication rate.