The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2013;20(1):6649-6655.
Overactive bladder is a highly prevalent condition that may have significant impact on quality of life. This condition may be idiopathic or may have a neurogenic etiology. Antimuscarinics have long been the preferred agents for the treatment of this condition. OnabotulinumtoxinA, an injectible agent that prevents presynaptic release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, has emerged as an important option in the management of patients with urinary incontinence caused by refractory detrusor overactivity. This manuscript describes our technique for performing utilizing this therapy, describes key equipment needed and provides technical tips for avoiding common pitfalls.
Keywords: overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, onabotulinumtoxinA
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(5):6480-6484.
Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) has become a standard treatment option for patients suffering from urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and/or nonobstructive urinary retention refractory to conservative and pharmacologic treatment. Since its initial development, the manufacturer of InterStim therapy (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), has introduced technical modifications, while surgeons and researchers have adapted and published various innovations and alterations of the implantation technique. In this article, we feature our SNM technique including patient selection, comprehensive dialogue/evaluation, procedure details, and appropriate follow up. Although there is often great variability in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction, we maintain that great success can be achieved with a systematic and methodical approach to SNM.
Keywords: neuromodulation, sacral nerve, voiding dysfunction
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(5):6485-6488.
Partial nephrectomy (PN) has gained popularity over the past two decades as an alternative to radical nephrectomy (RN) in patients with small renal masses. Morbidity and mortality from PN have been shown to be lower than from RN, while oncologic outcomes have been shown to be equivalent for tumors < 7 cm. PN has become increasingly popular in academic centers, but the general urologic community continues to lag behind. The reason for this is not known, but may be related to the relatively high complication rate, including delayed complications associated with inadequate closure. Here we describe a novel PN closure technique that provides additional strength and hemostasis by incorporating bovine pericardium.
Keywords: bovine pericardium, renal cancer, partial nephrectomy, surgical techniques, novel closure
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(4):6395-6400.
Penile cancer is a rare cutaneous malignancy that frequently spreads to the regional inguinal lymph nodes with a prolonged locoregional phase. An inguinal lymph node dissection may be both diagnostic and therapeutic, even in the setting of advanced disease. Despite its proven oncologic importance and efficacy, an inguinal lymphadenectomy remains underutilized, even with the publication of guidelines advocating its use. Failure to apply this modality is most likely due to the significant morbidity associated with a traditional open approach, including flap necrosis, wound infection and debilitating lymphedema. The risks and complications associated with an open inguinal lymph node dissection have driven several investigators to develop techniques for performing a minimally invasive endoscopic inguinal lymph node dissection that is oncologically equivalent to the ‘gold standard’ open approach, while potentially minimizing the complications traditionally seen with the open technique. In this report, we detail our technique for performing a minimally invasive endoscopic groin dissection with inguinal lymphadenectomy for penile carcinoma. We also present preliminary complication and short term oncologic data employing this surgical technique in an initial cohort of patients.
Keywords: penile carcinoma, laparoscopy
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(4):6401-6403.
Robot-assisted surgery has seen significant advancements in recent years, with dedicated training opportunities to acquire adequate skills. With improved degree of rotation and movement offered by the robot arm, newer techniques of knot tying need to be developed. Here we present a novel method of knot tying to help place a secure knot, especially with short suture length.
Keywords: robotics, surgical technique, knot tying
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(3):6314-6318.
The biochemical diagnosis of male hypogonadism remains a controversial issue. The problem is compounded by the variety of laboratory assays available to measure serum testosterone (T) and the limited understanding, among clinicians, of their relative diagnostic validity. It is widely accepted that only the testosterone not bound to sex hormone-bounding globulin is metabolically active. Therefore, for diagnostic purposes it is frequent practice to order the measurement of free T (FT) or bioavailable T (BAT).
Keywords: testosterone, hypogonadism, diagnosis, free testosterone
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(2):6227-6231.
In patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, fluorescence cystoscopy can improve the detection and ablation of bladder tumors. In this paper we describe the technique and practical aspects of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy, also known as “blue light cystoscopy”.
Keywords:superficial bladder cancer, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, fluorescence cystoscopy, hexaminolevulinate, blue light cystoscopy
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(2):6211-6216.
The current treatment standard of care for patients who present de novo or with a recurrent bladder tumor is transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) using monopolar or bipolar electrocautery in the form of a 90-degree loop electrode, which has been used since its introduction in 1952. This intervention, accomplished transurethrally, is both diagnostic and potentially therapeutic for patients with bladder cancer, especially for low grade, non muscle-invasive bladder tumors. Although usually safe and sufficient, this technique can create technical challenges, especially in the dynamically changing spherical space of the bladder. Bipolar energy has been available for many years and has been readily adopted for the endoscopic treatment of benign prostatic enlargement. A further refinement on bipolar energy has been the recent introduction of the Olympus Button Electrode (Olympus, Southborough, MA, USA). Coupling bipolar energy into the Olympus Button Electrode not only harnesses the benefits of less thermal spread but also obviates many of the geometric challenges associated with loop electrodes during resection of either large or inauspiciously placed bladder tumors. In this article, we detail our initial experience vaporizing bladder tumors with the Olympus Button Electrode. Although still very early in our experience, we have been able to completely vaporize very large tumors as well as tumors located in difficult parts of the bladder to access with minimal blood loss and no bladder perforations. Furthermore, our ability to obtain adequate grade and stage information has not been compromised by using this vaporization technique.
Keywords:bladder cancer, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, Olympus Button Electrode, bipolar electrocautery
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(2):6217-6222.
Many men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) forego therapy because they are dissatisfied with current treatment options. While surgical resection and ablation using many different forms of energy remain the reference standard for BPH treatment, many men seek a less invasive technique that will improve symptoms but not risk the complications associated with tissue removal. The Prostatic Urethral Lift opens the prostatic urethra with UroLift (NeoTract Inc., Pleasanton, CA, USA) permanent implants that are delivered under cystoscopic visualization. The implants literally “hold open” the lateral prostatic lobes creating a passage through the obstructed prostatic urethra. Voiding and symptoms are significantly improved without the morbidity or possible complications following prostate resection. The entire procedure can be readily performed using local anesthesia. As with all new implant procedures, the technique has evolved with experience. The objective of this article is to describe the most current technique for the delivery of the UroLift implant in order to achieve maximal impact on symptom relief.
Keywords:prostatic urethral lift, UroLift, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate, LUTS
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(2):6223-6226.
The 980 nm/1470 nm diode laser represents the latest in laser technology for photovaporization of the prostate. Surgeons have already used this device in both inpatient and outpatient (office and ASC) setting to produce transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) like lesions—albeit with fewer complications than traditional methods. The objective of this article is to report the techniques we used to demonstrate its efficacy and safety of the Evolve Dual (biolitec Inc., East Longmeadow, MA, USA) system in an outpatient surgery type setting.
Keywords:photovaporization, benign prostatic hyperplasia, outpatient, 980-nm/1470-nm diode laser, in office
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2012;19(1):6131-6134.
Holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP) was first described by Gilling et al in 1995. HoLRP has now evolved into holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) with the advent of the intravesical soft-tissue morcellator. The procedure involves anatomical dissection of the prostatic tissue off the surgical capsule in a retrograde fashion using a high-powered holmium laser followed by intravesical morcellation of the prostatic tissue. Some groups believe that the HoLEP procedure is the endoscopic equivalent to a simple open prostatectomy and may be superior to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or even open prostatectomy. The objective of this article is to explain the techniques for holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP).
Keywords:holmium laser prostatectomy, holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), benign prostatic hyperplasia, intravesical tissue morcellation
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(6):6050-6053.
Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse can afflict up to 10% of women. Urinary incontinence, voiding dysfunction or difficulty possibly related to bladder outlet obstruction are common symptoms. Infrequently hydronephrosis or defecatory dysfunction can be seen. The management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) should start with adequate assessment of all pelvic floor complaints. If a patient is not symptomatic, surgical intervention is usually not indicated. While the use of a variety of graft materials are available today including porcine, dermal and synthetic grafts, that are used in some surgical approaches to pelvic organ prolapse, other more conservative approaches may prove beneficial to many patients. This article describes our approach to the patient with pelvic organ prolapse.
Keywords:pelvic organ prolapse, mesh, transvaginal mesh, pessary, pelvic floor
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(5):5918-5926.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the most common surgical intervention for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), largely due to lower urinary tract symptoms refractory to medical therapy. TURP remains the gold standard for men with prostates sized 30g-80g, while open prostatectomy has been the preferred option for men with glands larger than 80g-100 g and those with other lower urinary tract anomalies such as large bladder stones or bladder diverticula. Unfortunately, these procedures have complications including bleeding (often requiring transfusion in 7%-13% of cases), electrolyte abnormalities (2% TURP syndrome), erectile dysfunction (6%-10%), and retrograde ejaculation (50%-75%). The overall incidence of a second intervention (repeat TURP, urethrotomy and bladder neck incision) has been reported in 12% and 15% of men at 5 and 10 years following TURP. Alternative therapies have been developed with the aim of reducing the level of complications while maintaining efficacy. These include microwave therapy, transurethral needle ablation, and a range of laser procedures (Holmium, Diode, Thulium and 532nm-Greenlight).
Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), initially launched as a 60W prototype, was ultimately introduced to the urology community as a 80W system (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA), has been the predominant device used in clinical trials. This 1st generation used an Nd:YAG laser beam passed through a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) crystal, halving the wavelength (to 532nm), doubling the laser's frequency, and resulting in a green light. Outcomes have demonstrated a reduced frequency and severity of clinical complications, however it was limited to smaller prostate sizes. In 2006, the 120W lithium triborate laser (LBO), also known as the GreenLight HPS (High Performance System) laser was introduced. This laser utilizes a diode pumped Nd:YAG laser light that is emitted through an LBO instead of a KTP crystal, resulting in a higher-powered 532 nm wavelength green light laser while still using the same 70-degree deflecting, side firing, silica fiber delivery system. The HPS offered an 88% more collimated beam and smaller spot size, resulting in much higher irradiance or power density in its 2 predecessors (60W and 80W) with a beam divergence of 8 versus 15 degrees. The primary aim for this upgrade was to reduce lasing time and improve clinical outcomes while demonstrating the same degree of safety for patients. Limitations of the 120W system included treatment of large prostates greater than 80g-100g and increased cost related to fiber devitrification and fracture. In 2011, the 180W-Greenlight XPS system was introduced, not only with increased power setting to vaporize tissue quicker but significant fiber-design changes. Internal cooling, metal-tip cap protection and FiberLife (temperature sensing feedback), better preserve the integrity of the fiber generally producing a 1-fiber per case expectation. Initial personal experience with XPS has provided comparable outcomes related to morbidity, but with the opportunity to perform a more complete and rapid procedure. Published clinical data with the XPS is unfortunately lacking.
The objective of this report is to detail our approach and technique for GreenLight XPS drawing on personal experience with both enucleation and vaporization techniques with various laser technologies along with having performed over 500 GreenLight HPS and 100 XPS procedures. In this regard, recommendations for training are also made, which relate to existing users of the 80W and 120W GreenLight laser as well as to new laser users.
Keywords: BPH, photovaporization, prostate
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(4):5844-5848.
Surgical treatment for men with localized prostate cancer —open, laparoscopic, or robotically-assisted-- remains one of the therapeutic mainstays for this group of patients. Despite the stage migration witnessed in patients with prostate cancer since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, detection of extraprostatic disease at the time of surgery and biochemical recurrence following prostatectomy pose significant therapeutic challenges. Radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) has been associated with a survival benefit in both the adjuvant and salvage setting. Nevertheless, optimal targeting of the prostate bed following surgery remains challenging. The Calypso 4D Localization System (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA, USA) is a target positioning device that continuously monitors the location of three implantable electromagnetic transponders. These transponders can be placed into the empty prostatic bed after prostatectomy to facilitate the delivery of radiation therapy in the postsurgical setting.
In this article, we detail our technique for transrectal placement of electromagnetic transponders into the postprostatectomy bed for the delivery of adjuvant or salvage intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We prefer this technique of post-surgical radiation therapy because it allows for improved localization of the target area allowing for the maximal delivery of the radiation dose while minimizing exposure of surrounding normal tissues. Although emerging, our initial oncologic and functional outcomes have been promising.
Keywords: prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, Calypso transponders, adjuvant radiation, salvage radiation
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(3):5726-5730.
The management of post-prostatectomy erectile function has been debated since the nerve sparing radical prostatectomy was first introduced. A number of penile rehabilitation protocols have been proposed with varying degrees of success and patient satisfaction. My management of postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction has evolved based on an honest and critical appraisal of the literature and my own experience and research. A review of major studies published on the topic of post-prostatectomy penile rehabilitation is included here, in addition to a critical evaluation of my own clinical practice. After evaluating the efficacy of these various approaches, it is clear to me that a nerve sparing procedure is only one of many factors involved in recovering erectile function. Moreover, in addition to assessing a patient's goals and their motivation for erectile function after prostatectomy, setting appropriate patient expectations is paramount to avoiding patient frustration. A frank evaluation and discussion with a patient and their partner is paramount to managing these expectations. A "one size fits all" approach is not appropriate. Herein, I discuss the evolution of my approach to managing postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction.
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(2):5630-5633.
Objective: This article will describe an efficient and effective method of using Olympus PlasmaButton (Olympus, Southborough, MA, USA) for transurethral vaporizations of the prostate (TUVP).
Methods: This method was developed over the last 18 months. Patients undergoing this Olympus PlasmaButton TUVP had the inner aspect of the prostate vaporized until it was believed to be significantly open and unobstructed. Results: Patients were found to do very well with what appears to be durable results. Postoperative short and long term bleeding has not been a significant issue using this method.
Conclusion: The Olympus PlasmaButton procedure is a new minimally invasive therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As with all new technologies there are methods that a surgeon learns with increased experience that help make the procedure more effective, efficient, and safer. This article shows one surgeon's technique that has been developed over time and has become a successful way to manage patients undergoing the minimally invasive transurethral vaporization of the prostate. There are probably other vaporization techniques that surgeons have learned with use of the PlasmaButton that may be equally effective.
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(2):5634-5643.
Introduction: Curative treatments for localized prostate cancer, from least invasive to most invasive, include brachytherapy, cryosurgery, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, external beam radiation therapy, and radical prostatectomy. A patient with localized, low risk or intermediate risk prostate cancer who is diagnosed at an early age and receives one of these treatments has only an approximately 50% chance of maintaining an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, good spontaneous erections, and total continence by 5 years after treatment.
Objective: This article discusses transrectal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of localized prostate cancer using the Sonablate 500 (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA) device, which the author has adopted in favor of the Ablatherm (EDAP, TMS S. A., Lyons, France) device, the other HIFU device approved for use in Canada.
Method: Characteristics of the ideal prostate cancer include stage T1-T2b, less than 40 cc in size, and with an anteriorposterior dimension of up to 35 mm high. The anterior zone of the prostate is treated before the posterior zone. The procedure involves 2 to 3 second bursts of ultrasound energy, followed by 3 second cooling cycles. In each treatment lesion, the physician achieves a temperature of 100° C at the focal point. The device allows for real-time visualization of tissue response following the delivery of ultrasound energy.
Conclusion: HIFU is a minimally invasive, outpatient treatment for localized prostate cancer that provides similar short term and medium term cure rates and considerably less morbidity and side effects than other treatments. Although the effectiveness of HIFU has not yet been demonstrated in large, long term studies, this treatment option should be discussed with patients who have just been diagnosed with low risk or intermediate risk prostate cancer and desire aggressive, noninvasive, curative therapy, with potentially a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional therapy.
The Canadian Journal of Urology. 2011;18(2):5644-5649.
Purpose: Ureteroileal anastomotic stricture is a late complication of Bricker ileal conduits. We report our utilization of a "shield shaped" rather than a standard slit ileotomy.
Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed a single surgeon's experience performing Bricker ileal conduits, initially using a slit incision, then a shield shaped ileotomy. Patient demographics, type of ileotomy, indication, history of prior radiation or chemotherapy, development of postoperative ureteroileal anastomotic stricture, date of stricture diagnosis, imaging modality, stricture treatment, outcome, and length of follow up were recorded.
Results: A total of 50 ileal conduit patients were identified between 2001-2009. A traditional slit incision ileotomy was performed in 25 patients (Group 1) and a shield shaped ileotomy was performed in the following 25 (Group 2). After excluding 1 patient in each group that died within 90 days postoperatively, a total of 95 renal units were anastomosed, (Group 1: 24 patients, 48 renal units, 2001-2005; and Group 2: 24 patients, 47 renal units, 2006-2009). A total of 8 (8.3%) ureteroileal anastomotic strictures were identified: 6 (12.5%) in Group 1, including 1 with bilateral strictures, and 2 (4.3%) in Group 2. Stricture diagnosis occurred at 1, 4, 4, 5, 14 and 42 months in Group 1, and at 6 and 10 months in Group 2. Mean follow up was 24.2 (2-85) months and 12.3 (2-26) months for each cohort, respectively. No increase in postoperative anastomotic leakage was identified.
Conclusions: Modifying the standard ileotomy slit to a shield shaped incision does not eliminate postoperative anastomotic strictures. This technique provides greater visualization of the suture line, making it technically easier to perform.