Our approach to prostate cancer immunotherapy involves two components dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells; and the antigen used to target T-cell attack, HLA-A0201-associated peptides from prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA). We have conducted a phase I dose-ranging study in 51 men with advanced prostate cancer, using dendritic cells pulsed with a PSMA peptide. no significant toxicity was observed. In that study, T-cell response was enhanced, with seven men meeting NCPC and PSA criteria for partial response. We are now conducting a phase II study with 67 men, who will receive 6 infusions of dendritic cells that have been pulsed with 2 PSMA peptides, at 6-week intervals. The phase II study design and rationale is described in this paper.