Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition in both women and men. Although prevalence's are similar in both genders, sex specific differences do exist in relation to individual OAB symptoms as well as degree of bother and quality of life. The added effect of prostatic enlargement in men leads to slightly different evaluation and treatment regimens in both genders. This review will examine the gender differences in OAB related to epidemiology, OAB evaluation, investigation and treatment. This information will assist the primary care physician in assessing and initiating treatment in patients with OAB. It will further the understanding of the spectrum of treatments available for OAB and assist in determining the appropriateness and timing of referral of such patients to a urologist.