INTRODUCTION: Calcification of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles is a rare condition of unknown incidence. It has been described in association with diabetes, hyperparathyroidism and genitourinary tuberculosis, amongst other conditions. Little is known about the clinical significance and management of this condition. We review the literature in an effort to find answers about an entity that is frequently appreciated as an incidental finding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic database search was performed (Medline) using the key words: vas deferens; seminal vesicles; calcification, alone or in combination. Articles were selected according to relevance and quality of evidence. RESULTS: The search included published manuscripts between 1960 and 2012. A total of 17 relevant publications were identified. The majority were written in the English language and mostly consisted of case presentations and reports of radiologic findings. CONCLUSION: Calcification of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles is a rare condition. However, it may be implicated in male factor infertility and symptoms from the urogenital tract. Treatment should be directed towards the underlying cause on an individual basis. It is unknown whether control of the primary process has any effects on the histopathological appearance of the ducts and/or their improvement of function.