The evaluation and treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) starts in the primary care office and can be accomplished efficiently, effectively and, most importantly, safely. With appropriate knowledge of the disease and an understanding of what to look for the primary care physician (PCP) can readily make the empiric diagnosis and initiate treatment. The key for the PCP is to be able to distinguish the uncomplicated patient from the complicated one and know when to refer, if necessary. It is also essential to be able to able to identify confounding conditions that could either be the cause of the symptoms or, in fact, make them worse. The algorithm presented in this paper describes a simplified, yet complete, approach to the patient presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with OAB. In the paper, we explain the disease itself, its prevalence and impact, the evaluation as well as the different treatment modalities that are available for the patient. Appropriate follow up, therapy adherence techniques and referral recommendations are also discussed.