Overactive bladder (OAB) with or without urinary incontinence is a common condition in both men and women. OAB has a significant impact on quality of life for most patients. In most cases, sophisticated testing is not required for a primary care physician to diagnose OAB and start treating a patient. Management of OAB requires behavioral modification and, if necessary, pharmacotherapy may be added. If a patient does not respond to treatment initiated by a primary care physician, then he or she should be referred to a specialist in OAB to undergo further investigations and treatments.