INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic techniques are becoming increasingly accepted for treatment of vesicoureteric reflux as alternatives to open surgical reimplantation. However, there is some debate about the ideal injectable material. Since we have accumulated experience with several substances, an opportunity existed to compare them.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2003, 101 children with vesicoureteric reflux were treated by endoscopic subureteric injection either once (74) or twice (27) by either of two pediatric urologists. There were a total of 165 ureteral injections, 83 with polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon®), 73 with polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique®), and 9 with collagen. Each child was evaluated pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively with a nuclear cystogram and renal ultrasonography.
RESULTS: The polytetrafluoroethylene and polydimethylsiloxane groups were not significantly different with respect to sex, age, indication for surgery, severity of reflux or prior surgeries. The collagen group overall did very poorly with only 3 of 9 refluxing ureters cured. The other two substances had much more success with 61% of ureters in the polytetrafluoroethylene group cured on first injection and 75% with polydimethylsiloxane, plus another 19% and 11% cured on second attempt, respectively (total 80% and 86%).
CONCLUSIONS: Subureteric injections of polytetrafluoroethylene and polydimethylsiloxane are very effective at curing vesicoureteric reflux in children with little morbidity. When comparing individual cases, ureters, and all grades of reflux, polytetrafluoroethylene and polydimethylsiloxane have similar success rates. Collagen injections were less successful, and patients with neurogenic bladders had poor results.